(Українська) Картина Леоніда Йосиповича Пастернака “Симонов монастир” відкриває вид на дивовижну архітектурну споруду Москви 40-х років XII століття.
Вежа Дуло – частина укріплень монастиря, важливою оборонною фортеці в ланцюзі південних московських укріплень.
Для даної роботи майстра характерна своєрідна передача світло-повітряного середовища, при якій найбільш важливі частини картини, а саме вежа і фрагмент монастиря, насичені яскравим сонячним світлом, а навколишній простір на передньому плані занурений в півтінь.
Leonid Osipovich (Yitzhok-Leib) Pasternak (1862-1945) – painter and graphic artist, representative of Russian Art Nouveau, master of genre compositions and book illustrations; teacher, academician.
Born in Odessa in the family of the owner of the hotel. Primary art education L.O. Pasternak received at the Odessa School of Drawing (1879-1881). In 1881, he entered Moscow University and studied at the Faculty of Medicine for two years. Then he successfully combined classes at the law faculty of Novorossiysk University in Odessa (1883-1885) and in classes at the Royal Academy of Arts in Munich (1883-1886), where he studied under Gerterich and Litsen-Meyer, in addition, he took etching lessons from I.I. Shishkin.
After graduation and compulsory military service in the artillery unit of L.O. Pasternak returned to Odessa, where in 1889 he married the already well-known pianist in Russia, Rosalia Kaufman. A year later, their son Boris Pasternak, the future famous writer, was born to them. Even before his marriage, L. Pasternak became close to the circle of the artist V. D. Polenov, the initiator of the drawing evenings, attended by both venerable and beginning artists: A.Ya. Golovin, S.V. Ivanov, V.A. Serov, I.I. Levitan, A.E. Arkhipov and others. L.O. Parsnip was a participant in the exhibitions “Partnership of the Wanderers”, “World of Art”. The master was also one of the founding members of the Union of Russian Artists (1903).
The first major work, “News from the Homeland”, which the artist announced about himself at the exhibition “Partnerships of the Wanderers” in February 1889, earned very flattering critics. P.M. Tretyakov acquired this work in its unfinished form. Buying a painting gave L.O. Pasternak make the long-awaited trip to Paris. The artist begins to apply a new technique – a combination of tempera and pastels, draws a lot of coal.
At 32, L. Pasternak became a professor at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1894). At 43, he was elected a full member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts (1905) – an act unheard of for a Jew. In his letter to Prince Lvov back in 1894 regarding his election as a professor, there were such words: “… but I will never go to leave Jewry for a career or in general to improve social status.”
In the years preceding the October Revolution, L.O. Pasternak participated in international exhibitions in Germany, Austria, France, in the first post-revolutionary years he was a participant in several Russian exhibitions. In 1921, the Pasternak couple went to Germany for treatment, and the artist needed eye surgery. In 1927 and 1932 in Berlin, two personal exhibitions of L.O. Parsnip. During this period, his interest in Jewish subjects intensified; he published the monograph “Rembrandt and Jewry in His Work” in Russian and Hebrew.
Thanks to the marriage of the youngest daughter, Leonid Pasternak and his wife were able to move to England shortly before the outbreak of World War II. The artist died in Oxford on May 31, 1945.
Works L.O. Parsnip is represented in many museums and private collections in Europe, America, Asia and Australia.
The painting by Leonid Osipovich Pasternak “Simon Monastery” offers a view of the amazing architectural structure of Moscow in the 40s of the XII century. The Dulo Tower is part of the fortifications of the monastery, an important defensive fortress in the chain of southern Moscow fortifications. This master’s work is characterized by a peculiar transmission of a light-air environment, in which the most important parts of the picture, namely the tower and a fragment of the monastery, are saturated with bright sunlight, and the surrounding space in the foreground is immersed in partial shade.